The preceding sections discussed specific pieces of call handling at length. Now it is time to put all the pieces together to see how a complete method invocation is handled. In particular, let's look at the handling of method calls on an Entity Bean.
The call is first logged. Then the TxInterceptor decides how to manage transactions for this call. The information needed for this decision comes from the standard XML descriptor. Then, the SecurityInterceptor checks if the caller is allowed to perform this call, again by using information from the XML descriptor. Up until this point no instance has been acquired. After all interceptors have been passed the container will invoke the business method on the EJB instance, so now we acquire this instance.
The interceptor calls the InstanceCache with the given primary key to perform this. Since the cache does not yet have an instance associated with the given primary key, it first gets a free instance from the instance pool, which it associates with the primary key. It then calls the persistence manager which will activate the instance. This usually only involves calling ejbActivate.
After instance acquisition the next interceptor deals with how this instance is synchronized with the database. There are a number of options (load on transaction start, load on each call, load on activate, etc.) and the interceptor has been configured to perform one of these options. In this example it will load on activate, so it calls the persistence manager to perform this. This will cause an ejbLoad call to be made on the instance.
Next, the last interceptor is invoked, which is the container itself. The container always adds itself as the last interceptor at the end of the chain. The call is now delegated to the EJB instance. The instance performs some work, and returns a result. The interceptor chain is now followed in reverse by having each interceptor return from the invoke-operation. The instance synchronization interceptor chooses to store the current state into the database and hence calls storeEntity on the persistence manager. Another valid option would be to wait until transaction commit.
Next, the instance is returned to the cache. If the transaction does not end with this call, it will first lock the instance to this transaction so that no other transaction may use it for the duration of this current transaction. This is the same as pessimistic locking. The transaction interceptor handles the method return according to the transaction settings, possibly commiting or rollbacking the current transaction. Finally, the container invoker returns the result to the client. This completes the call.
As you can see, all implementation decisions are performed by various plugins. These decisions are fairly loosely coupled, which allows the deployer of the EJB-application to tweak the behaviour of the container to a great degree. This also allows for a number of independent plugins to co-exist, each one allowing for slightly, or radically, different behaviour.
For example, some persistence managers could use an XML-file as the backing store instead of an RDBMS, and some security interceptor could use ACL's from a database instead of the XML descriptor to perform security checks. Or multiple security checks could be done by configuring the container to have several security interceptors of different types. All of these options are available by this componentized container architecture.